Chitosan

Tricol’s HemCon brand products are fabricated from chitosan (ky-to-san), a pure naturally occurring biocompatible polysaccharide extracted from freshly harvested shrimp shells. Chitosan has natural wet-adhesion properties that firmly bind to mucosal tissue, red blood cells, and platelets for rapid control of low-to-high volume bleeding. The pure chitosan used by Tricol has been shown to be non-allergenic.1

Multiple studies show chitosan has unique hemostatic properties, surpassing the speed of hemorrhage control of other hemostatic agents such as minerals and cellulose (ORC) particularly for deep penetrating and high volume/high pressure arterial wounds.2,3

Chitosan’s positive charge attracts negatively charged red blood cells and platelets. As they are drawn into the dressing, they instantly form a very tight seal and coherent clot. This hemostatic process lies outside the clotting cascade. It also provides antibacterial properties against at least 24 microorganisms.4,5

Tricol has two chitosan product platforms: a lyophilized freeze-drying platform and a gauze platform. Both create unique and efficacious medical solutions.

1 Waibel KH, Haney B et al. Safety of chitosan bandages in shellfish allergic patients. Mil Med. 2011 Oct;176(10):1153-6.
2 MacIntyre AD et al. Hemostatic dressing reduces tourniquet time while maintaining hemorrhage control. Am Surg. 2011 Feb;77(2):162-5.
3 Schwartz RB et al. Comparison of two packable hemostatic gauze dressings in a porcine hemorrhage model. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2011 Oct-Dec;15(4):477-82.
4 Burkatovskaya M et al. Use of chitosan bandage to prevent fatal infections developing from highly contaminated wounds in mice. Biomaterials. 2006 Aug;27(22):4157-64.
5 Data on file. HemCon, Inc. In vitro study.

Percent and log reductions* of organisms after exposure to dressing
 
Organism
Gram Stain
Percent Reduction
Log Reduction
Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33591
+
>99.99
>4.0
Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) ATCC 51299
+
>99.99
>5.4
Acinetobacter baumanii ATCC 15308
>99.99
>4.2
Escherichia coli ATCC 8739
>99.99
>5.2
Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 4352
>99.99
>5.3
Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615
+
>99.99
>5.5
Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228
+
>99.99
>5.2
Salmonella choleraesuis ATCC 10708
>99.99
>5.1
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027
99.99
>4.3
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 700802
+
>99.99
>5.4
Serratia marcescens ATCC 13880
99.99
5.0
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 12714
>99.99
>5.1
Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175
+
>99.99
>5.2
Clostridium difficile ATCC 9689
+
>99.99
>5.6
Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 10015
+
99.99
5.8
Shigella species ATCC 11126
>99.99
>5.4
Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048
>99.99
>5.0
Proteus mirabilis ATCC 4630
>99.99
>5.2
Proteus vulgaris ATCC 12454
>99.99
>4.8
Citrobacter freundii ATCC 8090
>99.99
>4.3
Enterobacter cloacae ATCC 13047
>99.99
>4.2
Moraxella catarrhalis ATCC 8193
>99.99
>4.1
Micrococcus luteus ATCC 49732
+
99.99
4.9
Vibrio cholerae ATCC 11558
>99.99
>4.9
* Percent/log reduction refers to the percentage/log reduction in organisms at 24 hours vs. 0 hours exposure to the dressing.
Only single strains of most species mentioned have been studied.